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Reorder point (ROP) is a supply chain management technique that businesses can use to guide this delicate balancing act to improve inventory operations, avoid stockouts, and maintain ideal inventory levels. Safety stock level is considered using the (Maximum daily orders x maximum lead time) – (average daily orders x average lead time). The lead time demand can increase quickly, or you may face a problem with the supplier that restricts you from restocking inventory as quickly as https://www.digitalconnectmag.com/a-deep-dive-into-law-firm-bookkeeping/ you expected. Is there a tangible difference between items available from preferred vendors that are purchased from other sources? If not, identify the best fit and work with the vendor on contract pricing for the consolidated items with a Group Purchasing Organization (GPO). This will save space in supply locations, enabling healthy quantities of the various supplies used to provide patient care, and room to implement more effective methods of PAR management as mentioned above.

Where QL(α) is the lead time forecast error quantile at the target service level α. This quantile can be obtained, in a non-parametrical fashion, from the empirical distribution of the lead time forecast errors [21]. Van de Klundert et al. (2008) design an integer linear programming model for TOP and prove that TOP is NP-hard in the strong sense. Reymondon et al. (2008) propose a mathematical The Importance of Accurate Bookkeeping for Law Firms: A Comprehensive Guide model with non-linear constraints to deal with the TOP. Their model determines the number of trays required for each surgical case, as well as the type and number of instruments within each package, with the aim of minimising storage and reprocessing costs. They also discuss the computational challenges of their model when large instances of the problem are considered.

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The average lead time is 1.15 months.To get the safety stock quantity, we need to multiply the service factor Z by the demand standard deviation σ and the square root of the lead time L. A very basic inventory control approach is ABC classification, where the classification is based on the cost of the supply. More attention should be paid to the A class that absorbs a high portion of the budget (70%) but accounts for a low percentage of the total items (10%). The remaining 70% of items are Group C and they absorb 10% of the budget (Gupta, Gupta, Jain, & Garg, 2007). In conjunction with the ABC analysis, Gupta et al. (2007) propose VED analysis, which relies on the criticality of the items.

In the healthcare setting, the (R, S) policy – known as Periodic Automatic Replenishment (PAR) level – is widely used because of its simplicity and consolidation of orders in replenishment periods (Rossetti et al., 2012). If the holding and shortage costs are linear, the optimal model for periodic review is the (R, s, S) policy (Scarf, 1959) and for continuous review it is the (r, Q) policy (Zheng, 1992). The periodic review policy includes four replenishment methods as described in Table 5.

## Special terms used in dealing with inventory management

They propose a simple rule for using a given R to calculate s, c, and S in an intuitive way with the aim of minimising total cost, including holding cost and ordering cost. In their evaluation, demands follow the Poisson distribution with normally distributed transaction size. Due to the critical role Supply Chain play in the healthcare sector, cost control and the optimization of material flows of drugs have been the subject of numerous studies, and different approaches and methods have been suggested in the literature [2-10]. In particular, we found that analytical/optimization approaches play a pivotal role on the dimensioning of safety stocks, inasmuch as they represent the vast majority of techniques used for that purpose (88%).

An optimal safety stock strategy should be small enough to reduce inventory-related costs while satisfying demand and high service level customers on time. This naturally depends on how to cope with different levels of demand volatility, and how large is the lead time variance. On the other hand, the size of order releases and the degree of component commonality may also suggest opportunities to optimize safety levels. This section recalls standard stochastic approaches for dimensioning safety stocks, based on normally distributed parameters, which embody some of the aforementioned factors.

## Factors Influencing Choice of Service Level

Measuring impact of such an inventory shortage on patients is difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, the occurrence of a shortage can be preventable by introducing service level as a constraint (Bijvank & Vis, 2012; Diamant et al., 2017; Guerrero et al., 2013; Nicholson et al., 2004) or an objective function (Little & Coughlan, 2008). Service level is usually defined as the fraction of the demand that is satisfied by on-hand inventory, without substitution or emergency delivery (Bijvank & Vis, 2012).

Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a powerful technique that, based on computer-aided systems, allows to generalize from training examples. As a prominent AI technique, neural network models have often been applied in decision-making problems in different SC contexts, including time series forecasting [122], supplier selection [123] and smart logistics [124], to name a few. Recently, a study proposed by Zhang et al. [120] used a back-propagation neural network to estimate safety stock levels. The authors have considered selling frequency, storage/shortage costs, demand, and purchasing quantity as model features that may have influence on dimensioning safety stocks. However, if the values of safety stock used as training instances are not optimal in the sense of minimizing inventory costs while maximizing service level, the predicted safety stocks may also not be optimal.